29

Historia (Santiago)

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Universidad Catolica

PUBLICACIÓN DEL INSTITUTO DE HISTORIA

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Aránguiz, Horacio & Rodríguez Salas, Cristián

Tradicionalismo y cambio agrícola en Aconcagua: elementos para su comprensión

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This article describes and analyses the changes in the landholding structure and forms of production in the valley round the Aconcagua river during the 19th century, following the gradual changes in the insertion of the region in the agricultural exports model. The first stage, up to the first crises in the wheat markets, is marked by an increase in the areas sown with grain, thanks to an extension of irrigation and better Communications with the mining regions in the North of Chile and the port of Valparaíso. This process was accompanied by a gradual division of the large estates but without a transformation in the forms of production. The second stage, linked to the grain export crises in the Central Valley, shows a diversification of the crops grown in the valley for the internal and foreign markets, based on the intensive use of the land, which leads to the creation of agroindustries of an intermediate level.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella

“Ngünechen”, el concepto de dios mapuche

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This article analyzes the Mapuche concept of Ngünechen, the creator and sustainer of the world by his/her own will and protector of the Mapuche family. I trace the evolution of the concept of Ngünechen from the 16th century and look at it's relationship with other spiritual beigns with which it has often been confused such as Ngen, Ngünenchen, Ngenechen, Ngenemapun, Elchen, Elmapun, Wenupülluam, Pülluam, Tren-Tren, Kai-kai, Wekufü, Mapurey, Genche and the Christian God. I draw on both ethnohistorical and anthropological data and propose three different ways to trace the origin and development of this concept each of which point to different aspects of this deity. 1) The hypothesis of the existence of an initial creator God that becomes less important as ancestral spirits prevail but that reappeas during the cosmic catastrophe brought on by the Spanish conquest, 2) Ngünechen as originating from the process of generalization of nature spirits, ancestral spirits and regional deities, 3) Ngünechen as taking the attributes of omnipotence and omniscience from the Christian God.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Cruz B., Nicolás

Una contrapropuesta educacional en el Chile del siglo XIX

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When the first plan for a national high school curriculum was established in the Republic of Chile in 1843, an interesting educational alternative was presented by the provinces, and specifically by the city of Concepción. The provinces claimed that the curriculum prepared in Santiago, but which was to be applied in all the "liceos" of the country, was excessively centralistic, and based on the study of the humanities, with special emphasis on the study of Latin. The counterproposals from the provinces which were presented during most of the 19th century, indicated that the curriculums should be adapted to the specific needs of each province, and oriented towards useful studies, in accordance to what been widely recommended by the Spanish thinkers of the Enlightenment in the 18th century.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Jaksic, Iván

Racionalismo y fe: la filosofía chilena en la época de Andrés Bello

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This article places the development of Chilean philosophy during the nineteenth century in a national intellectual and political context. It identifies the tension between rationalism and faith as the organizing principle that guides the development of the discipline in Chile during the period. It argues that, in many ways due to the influence of Andrés Bello, Chilean philosophy managed to reconcile, not without conflict, Catholic traditions with modern secular philosophical currents. The creation of the Universidad de Chile played a critical role in this process, and thus philosophy developed in a primarily academic direction, monitored strongly from the Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities. Emphasis is given in this article to the establishment of procedures for the teaching of the field in the national educational system.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Lacoste, Pablo

Las guerras Hispanoamericana y de la Triple Alianza, la Revolución de los Colorados y su impacto en las relaciones entre Argentina y Chile

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This article analizes the Chilean-Argentinean relations during the 1860 decade concerning the position of intellectuals of both countries, in particular the opinions of the argentines Mitre, Sarmiento and Alberdi published in El Mercurio of Valparaíso. Likewise, the article discusses relations between countries of the South American cone concerning the consequences of the War of the Triple Alliance, the war against Spain during those years, and the Argentinean civil wars. Finally, the official Argentinean answer against Chile and Paraguay strongly damages the good understanding between the states favoring the European relations, leaving unsolved, specially with Chile, several bilateral important issues.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

León León, Marco Antonio

“Un simple tributo de amorosa fe”: La celebración de la “Fiesta de los Difuntos” en Santiago de Chile, 1821-1930

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This article studies the principal forms of “social contact" created in the cementeries of Santiago in the remembrance of the dead on November 1st., All Saints' Day. A review of the press and contemporary descriptions show the secular and religious attitudes of the inhabitants of Santiago in the General and Catholic Cementeries since 1821, when the former was inaugurated, and 1930 when the cementeries lose their consecrated character. It is possible to distinguish two kinds of celebrations: the first one, of a popular nature, took place outside the General Cementery and had a festive character with singing and dancing as a way to evade the grief at the loss of a beloved one, the other involved a collective visit to the cementery to pay posthumous homage to the deceased person or express continued love. Both forms of celebrating All Saints' Day provide an unexplored line of research to understand the behaviour of the living towards the city of the dead.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

León, Leonardo

Conflictos de poder y guerras tribales en Araucanía y las Pampas: La Batalla de Tromen (1774)

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By the end of the eigtheenth century the tribal society of Araucanía and the Pampas was shocked by intense actional wars, which immersed its inhabitants in an environment of violence, depredation and death. The civil warfare, a true counterpart of the raids, and frontier trade that characterized Mapuche society during those years, impregnated their daily life, forcing them to remain a state of constant military alert. Historical evidence allows to refer to three types of conflicts: those derived from mutual accusations of sorcery, those that evolved from the ambitions of their leaders to gain power, and those caused by economic clashes between different social segments. Apparently, the traditional systems of mediator and peace-making developed by the mapuche came to a sudden and costly crisis. Why was there such an epidemic of internal wars events underlied the development of social relationships in Araucanía and the Pampas that obliged to resolve disputes through the use of violence? In what way did these internal breakdowns influence the evolution of the Spanish-Mapuche frontier both in Chile and the River Plate? In this article, we have centered our attention in the Battle of Tromen, an event hither to ignored by fellow historians, which shows the intensity and complexity that acquired tribal conflicts during the second half of the eighteenth century; fought in the trail of Toqui Ayllapangui's rise to tribal power, it constitutes one of the bloodiest confrontations ever recorded in Mapuche History.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Mardones Zúñiga, Rodrigo

Chile y su comercio con Argentina 1930-1960

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The object of this article is to provide an account on the situation of the trade between Chile and Argentina in the period from 1930 to 1960. Emphasis is laid on the discussion which took place in Chile over the commercial treaties with Argentina, which went beyond the legal aspects of the same. The idea is to provide a key to interpret the general trend of opinions and the effective scope for integration of the different agreements. A second objetive is to set out the principal arguments which were used to promote or object to this type of commercial initiatives. Finally, the article refers to the effective development of this trade.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Nicholls Lopeandía, Nancy

Intelectuales liberales relevantes frente a la Cuestión Social en Chile (1890-1920): Una minoría a favor del cambio

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This article deals with the liberal intellectual elite in late 19th and early 20th century Chile, and its attitude to the “social question" which developed during this period. Through a prosopographical study of a sample of thirteen intellectuals and an analysis of their principal theoretical propositions, it is possible to establish their attitude towards the social question, the policies they proposed for solving these problems and the degree of their influence and access to political power in order to apply their policies. The article concludes that these intellectuals were engaged in numerous other activies besides teaching and writing, such as journalism, their profession and, most important, politics. That is why they were effectively inserted in the society of their age; they exerted considerable influence on public opinion wielded political power, especially in parliamentary circles. As regards the "social question" they realised that the problem was inminent or existed already in Chile. Under the circumstances, they were ready to adopt the theories formulated in Europe by social liberalism, academic socialism and solidarianism, to temper the classical liberalism reigning in Chile, based on market forces and opposed to state intervention in social matters. These intellectuals also initiated social legislation in Chile through their role in Congress, thus applying their ideas to specific policies. On a private level, they engaged in philanthopic activities, welfare and popular education, which complemented their role as social reformers at a local level.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Rosati Aguirre, Hugo

El Imperio Español y sus fronteras: Mapuches y Chichimecas en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI

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The conquest of America by the Spanish from the end of the 15th century presented several forms. One of the most remarkable of these forms took place in the so called marginal frontiers, which has very special traits. These particularities are evident in a comparison between the Mapuche frontier in South Chile and the Chichimeca frontier in the northern New Spain, which also shows great similarities between them.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Rosenblitt, Jaime

El Ministerio de Gustavo Ross y la configuración del Estado nacional desarrollista (1932-1938)

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This article analyses the strategy applied by Finance Minister Gustavo Ross to alleviate the effects of the 1930 crisis on the Chilean economy. Emphasis is laid on the nitrate industry, the foreign debt and the instruments of government used by the minister to tackle the problems of the different productive sectors in a pragmatic way, to provide stimuli, adopt temporary measures and, eventually, reestablish economic equilibrium. These mechanisms were used later by the Chilean State to intervene in the economic system in order to bring about a radical change in the same. They made it possible to overcome the dependence on a single export product –nitrate– and to make a successful change from a development model based on free trade to another based on the internal market and the industrialization of the country.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Serrano, Sol

De escuelas indígenas sin pueblos a pueblos sin escuelas indígenas: La educación en la Araucanía en el siglo XIX

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This article studies Republican State policy regarding indigenous education as a form of integration and domination of the Mapuche people who maintained their independence until 1881. It begins with colonial background information and goes on to study the continuation of mission policy during the Republican period, in which the school is inserted, in order to conclude that the school was not successfully established because Mapuche social organization rejected the formation of towns. The school's establishment became successful together with the spontaneous advancement of the Spanish-Chilean population in Mapuche territory and the formation of towns. This public school, as opposed to the mission school, was not indigenous but rather mixed. The liberal State, after the occupation of Araucanía (the Mapuche's region), extended the zone's education without considering indigenous issues, under the supposition that the Mapuche population would accede to the national school and upon enrolling would give up their own culture. This article proposes that the indigenous school was not successfully established due to a lack of twons and that when these were created, the school was public and not indigenous. Thus, the liberal State's homogenizing educational policy was an important means towards the cultural adaptation of the Mapuche people, although it did not make their culture disappear.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Valdivieso Fernández, Patricio

Chile y sus obstáculos para el desarrollo durante el primer siglo de vida independiente. Nuevos antecedentes e hipótesis.

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This article presents the preliminary results of a research project on the obstacles to the economic development of Chile from Independence to 1910. The first part tests the arguments set out in two well known theories against Chilean data and concludes that new hypotheses are required to solve the problem. The method proposed in this study is to identify the favourable conditions for development existing in other countries, and find out why these conditions did not exist in Chile. This study presents new information on two factors which did not favor Chilean development in the 19th century: demographic behaviour and the agricultural sector. The final summary stresses the need for further research on these conditions in the different regions ofthe country.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Teresa Pereira: El Partido Conservador. 1930-1965. Ideas. Figuras y Actitudes

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Tagle Domínguez, Matías

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Rolf Foester: Introducción a la religiosidad mapuche

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Francisco de Solano (ed.): Relaciones Económicas del Reino de Chile, 1780

Ver reseña Reseñado por: de Ramón, Armando

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº29, Santiago 1995-1996

Gonzalo Vial Correa: Arturo Prat

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Gazmuri, Cristián