30

Historia (Santiago)

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Universidad Catolica

PUBLICACIÓN DEL INSTITUTO DE HISTORIA

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Abbagliati Boils, Enzo

Desencuentros en la encrucijada. Perspectivas sobre las relaciones económicas entre Chile y EE.UU.: 1958-1961

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

This is a study of the political culture surrounding the public debate in Chile over economic relations with the United States during the first three years of the Jorge Alessandri administration, the beginning of a new cycle in Chilean history (1958-1973). The analysis of the discourse of the different political sectors, organizations and the press, provides evidence of the contrasting positions. The context is provided by the Cuban Revolution as an alternate model for U.S. Latin American relations and the creation in Washington of a new policy towards Latin America, the Alliance for Progress, and by the application of a “liberal economic policy" by the Alessandri Government. In contrast to prior debates on Chilean foreign relations, and specifically with the United States, the players took part in important and novel confrontations on subjects such as copper policies or the diversification of foreign trade.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Crozier, Ronald D.

El salitre hasta la Guerra del Pacífico: una revisión

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article provides a reassessment of the nitrate industry in Peru and Bolivia up to the War of the Pacific based on the material provided by the archives of Antony Gibbs and Sons and various contemporary publications. Special attention is given to the successive changes in the technology of nitrate extraction prior to the introduction of the Shanks system. These improvements were more effective than was previously supposed. Production costs are also analized, output figures are provided for specific “oficinas", and contemporary information is provided on the Peruvian attempts to form a nitrate monopoly.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Cruz de Amenábar, Isabel

Diosas atribuladas: alegorías cívicas. Caricatura y política en Chile durante el siglo XIX

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

The presence of women in history is often shown not overtly, but in code or symbolic fashion. Research on 19th century Chilean caricature in the illustrated satirical press, has provided examples of civic allegories, one of the less evident forms of presenting the femenine figure in the past. The Republic, the Motherland, Liberty, the Law and Justice became institutional and valoric elements in Chilean political caricature and emblems of liberal thought in the struggle for the secularization of society. The personification and visual representation of the key political ideas, made them accesible to the people and created a budding republican folklore based in the femenine category.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Gutiérrez, Ramón

La fiesta secular: tradición, obsecuencia y trasgresión

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

The effective motives of secular celebrations during the Baroque Period in Spanish America have yet to be studied. In contrast to religious ceremonies, which present clear persuasive and participative structural conceptions, secular celebrations have diverse foundations which at first are not clearly preceptible. This study analyses archival sources relating to three types of secular celebrations in the Spanish Empire: a bullfight in Buenos Aires, a Royal Proclamation in Honda (Viceroyalty of New Granada) and carnival festivities in Paraguay. These may be interpreted to reflect, respectively, a festive tradition, reverential obsequence and transgression, three different attitudes in three different territories, though all took place at around the same time, which express the richness and diversity of the baroque festivities in Latin America.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Odone, Carolina

El Valle de Chada: La construcción colonial de un espacio indígena de Chile central

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

A dossier of documents collected in the 17th and part of the 18th centuries shows that the valley of Chada was affected by a series of Spanish decisions in different spheres (administrative, religious, spatial, economic, and others) which disrupted the existing relationship between the local indian population and the patterns in the use of the land and its resources. Chada is a microcosm of the way in which the Spanish patterns of occupation and production were Imposed. The possession of land and livestock was one of the keys to the evidence of Spanish presence and authority in an area marked by visible frontiers between what belonged to the Indians and the Spaniards.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Pinto Vallejos, Julio

¿Cuestión social o cuestión política? La lenta politización de la sociedad popular tarapaqueña hacia el fin de siglo (1889-1900)

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article explores the first attempts at formal political participation by the working class sector in the nitrate region towards the end of the 19th century. The first part reviews the current literature regarding the politicalization of the working class during the period of the “social question". The second and third part cover the alternative forms of popular politicalization evident in the nitrate region, which are applicable to the rest of the country: the “endogenous" form stresses worker autonomy as proposed by the Democratas, Socialists and Anarchists while the other is “induced" by the elite parties, in particular the Balmacedistas and the Radicales. The former alternative is not very evident in the period under study, whereas the latter appears to have been much more successful preparing the ground for the populist Alessandrismo in the future.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Ramos Sosa, Rafael

La fiesta barroca en Ciudad de México y Lima

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

The Baroque festivity has lived on longer in Spanish America than anywhere else. México and Peru are particularly significant in this respect, for their celebrations still retain ceremonies and decor which show evidence of their roots in the Baroque tradition. These can be explained because, in truth, there was no Age of Enlightenment. They stem from deeply trascendental peoples, from a festive tradition grounded on a profound religiousness and an optimistic outlook on life. The analysis of the principal baroque celebrations –civilian, religious, and festive– in the 17th and 18th centuries in México City and Lima show that, for these societies, the best way to celebrate a festivity was to sublimate the affirmation of life in the beauty of forms. The festive element was expressed in and through art. Festive art was the quintessential expression of the Baroque, for, as Octavio Paz remarks, it united in a supreme contradiction, the apotheosis and the destruction of forms.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Sagredo Baeza, Rafael

Chile: 1823-1831. El desafío de la administración y organización de la hacienda pública

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article studies the challenges posed by the transition from the colonial to the republican system in Chile. It deals with the problems faced by the founding fathers in order to overcome the economic crisis caused by struggle for independence and organize the public finances, and the corresponding measures adopted, especially in the reform of the government revenues and the consolidation of the public debt.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Sanhueza Tohá, Jaime

La Confederación General de Trabajadores y el Anarquismo chileno de los años 30

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

During this period Anarchism was concentrated in the General Confederation of Workers (Confederación General de Trabajadores CGT), although the remnants of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and other non labor anarchist organizations were still in existence. Anarchists were numerous in the construction and printing trades. Their organizations were almost nonexistent in the North, but were evident in Santiago and Central Chile. In general, the CGT was at loggerheads with the governments of the period. In the second half of the decade, the relative revival of anarchism was overshadowed by the strengthening of the Reformist Left which, at a national level, sponsored the formation of the Confederation of Chilean Workers (Confederación de Trabajadores de Chile CTCh) and the Popular Front. Although the union activities of the CGT were based on “direct action", they were, generally speaking, of a pragmatic and economic nature. The decline of Anarchims was helped about, amoung other factors, by its own ideological and organic weakness, repression, the development of labour laws, the changes in the political system and the growth of Marxist parties. The significance of Anarchism in Chile lies mainly as the sympton of an age, in its effects on society and its influence on other political and labor tendencies.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Tagle Domínguez, Matías

La separación de la Iglesia y el Estado en Chile. Historiografía y debate.

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

The first part of this study provides an account of the negotiations between the Chilean political players regarding the application of the Constitution of 1925 which formally established the separation of Church and State without an in-depth ideological discussion on the subjet. Chilean historians have not studied the debate and approval in Congress of a bill to separate Church and State in 1884 which did involve an important ideological debate. This debate is covered in the final part of this study, showing the different positions and ideas presented by the various sectors.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Zapater, Horacio

Huincas y Mapuches (1550-1662)

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: .

 

Abstract

close [x]

This ethnohistorical paper covers the period from 1550, the year when Pedro de Valdivia crossed for the second time the river Biobío to enter the Araucanía, until 1662, when the Spanish Crown issued a “Real Despacho” (Real Edict), to grant a general indult to rebel indians. This paper aims at collecting data in historical sources about the pacific or conflictive relations between europeans and mapuches (local aborigen). It is intented to inform about the causes of the araucan uprightins, superposition of the indian hispanic institutions, slavery, moving of peoples, racial prejudices, decrease of population, halfbreeding (mestizaje) and international projection of the araucan war.

Keywords: .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Patricia Arancibia: Mario Góngora en busca de sí mismo. 1915-1946

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Fermandois, Joaquín

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Jorge Rojas Flores: Los niños cristaleros: Trabajo infantil de la industria. Chile. 1880-1950

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Millar Carvacho, René

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Gonzalo Vial C: Historia de Chile (1891-1973), tomo IV (1925-1931)

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Gazmuri, Cristián

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Manuel Vicuña Urrutia: El París americano. La oligarquía chilena como actor urbano en el siglo XIX

Ver reseña Reseñado por: León León, Marco Antonio

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Barry L. Velleman: Andrés Bello y sus libros

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Jaksic, Iván

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Gonzalo Vial, Patricia Arancibia y Álvaro Góngora: Jorge Alessandri. 1896-1986. Una biografía

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Tagle Domínguez, Matías

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº30, Santiago 1997

Isabel Cruz De Amenabar: La Fiesta: Metamorfosis de lo Cotidiano.

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Silva Vargas, Fernando

HISTORIA. Vol. 30, 1997: 557-611. Fichero bibliográfico 1995

En esta bibliografía se han reunido obras de las siguientes especies: a) estudios publicados en Chile sobre temas relacionados con las ciencias históricas; b) publicaciones hechas en el extranjero sobre temas concernientes a la historia de Chile; y c) obras históricas dadas a la luz por chilenos en el extranjero sobre historia de Chile, España … [+]