versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194
Palabras clave: Inmigrantes alemanes, industrialización, Valdivia.
This article analyses tile role of the German immigrants in the industrial development of Valdivia between 1850 and 1914. This group managed to organise an important group of modern factories dedicated mainly to the transformation of agricultural and forestry products into manufactured or semi-manufactured goods. They were also sucessful in placing their production in the local, national and international markets, making Valdivia an important port for the export of industrial products. The establishment of the factory system in Valdivia extended the use of two of its principal characteristics: the division of labor and wage payments in cash.
Keywords: German immigrants, industrialization, Valdivia.
Palabras clave: Nacionalismo, Identidad cultural.
Latin American nationalist thought in the period between 1925 and the mid 1940s represents a revindication of national economic identity, just as nationalism was previously linked to the scarch for social identity and, even earlier, for a cultural identity. The author reviews the works of various writers in the majority of Latin American countries who, notwithstanding obvious differences, formed part of this movement. They include Federico Henríquez y Carvajal, Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz, José Vasconcelos, Gabriela Mistral, Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Carlos Ibarguren. J. Oliveira Vianna, Plinio Salgado, Juan Emiliano O'Leary, Antenor Orrego, Salvador Mendieta, Vicente Sáenz and Juan José Arévalo. Nationalism is studied in relation to other ideologies such as conservatism, integralism and socialism. It is also considered in its relation to historical revisionism and the subject of continental unity.
Keywords: Nationalism, Cultural identity.
Palabras clave: Puerto, Quintero.
In 1872 a rich chilean business man tried to built, in the natural harbour of Quintero, near Santiago, a modern seaport with better facilities than those of Valparaíso. He died before achieving his goal, but his son and daughter in law continued with the task and actually built the port and a railroad, as well as a summer resort in the 1920's. But the company had many problems, mainly financial ones. After some years of efforts to save the enterprise it finally went to bankruptey, and the owners were ruined. It’s a history o ilusions, will, bad luck, fight agaist bureaucracy and opposite interests, inapropiate management and final disaster.
Keywords: Harbour, Quintero.
Palabras clave: Integración económica, Diego Portales, Juan Bautista Alberdi.
This article analyses various proposals for the economic integration of South America presented both in Chile and Argentina between 1830 and 1930. Their authors here studied include Diego Portales, Juan Bautista Alberdi, Alejandro Bunge, Santiago Marín Vicuña and Alfredo Palacios.
Keywords: Economic integration, Diego Portales, Juan Bautista Alberdi.
Palabras clave: Corregidor, Siglo XVIII.
The “Corregidor” in 18th-century Chile did not receive a salary, a state of affairs which required him to engage in economic activities in order to live. The result was that many of these judges engaged in trade, with an advantage over other merchants and in detriment of the execution of justice.
Keywords: Corregidor, 18th-century.
Palabras clave: Provincia jesuita de Perú.
Based mainly with the correspondence between the General of the Order and the provincial heads, this article studies the administration of the Jesuit Province of Perú between 1630 and 1650. It shows that, in practice, the government of the province was exercised directly by the General, as was, in fact prescribed in the constitutions of the constitutions of the order. Centralization was such that no matter of any importance was decided without consulting Rome. The General intervened in the nomination of the superiors, in the granting of degrees to members of the order, in the management of the schools and houses, in the granting of permissions to publish and other affairs. But he also decided on other very trivial matters, and did so knowing that in could lead to situations which could affect the discipline or the prestige of the order. The letter from the General also show that the Jesuit province of Perú was beset y numerous problems, the most important of which refer to economic and disciplinary questions.
Keywords: Jesuit Province of Perú.
Palabras clave: Historia antropológica, Inquisición.
The seat of the Inquisition from Lima concentrated its professional efforts in the social control of the “old Christians”, rather than in the persecution of real heretics. With the exception of restricted periods, the institution devoted most of its time in following trials against bigamous, witches or blasphemous. There where, however, kinds of “old christians” who suffered in a very severe way by the pressure to reform their conduct. Undoubtedly the religious were their favourite targets. The article studies the process followed against the Peruvian jesuit Rafael Venegas, for solicitation, perpetrated in Santiago of Chile in the middle of the XVII century. It tries to explain why the sacrament of penitence became a means to an undure erotism and what where the conditions that made the Church start seeing the incontinence of its members as punishable offense. The article, based on the rich information given in legal source, pretend to shows an internal vision of the way in which the trials of this kind were conducted, pointing out its judiciary dimension as well as the anthropological ones.
Keywords: anthropological history, Inquisition .
Palabras clave: Historia económica, Finanzas municipales, Comuna Autónoma.
Chilean municipalities during the 19th century were completely dependent on the government and constantly short of funds. The Constitution of 1833 contemplated municipalities which embraced large territories and various urban centers. The capital of the Department was the seat of the municipality which was under the authority of the local governor. In these conditions, municipal finances were dependent on decisions taken in Santiago. Originally the municipalities relied on the colonial system of revenues to which were added a series of local taxes on commerce, street lighting and urban transport, with poor results. In the middle of the century, the central government provided a new financial structure based on local imposts, state subsidies and the possibility of borrowing for public works. Although municipal finances improved, sustained borrowing, especially in the large cities, led to a crisis towards 1880, when some municipalities were assigning up to 50 per cent of their income to service debts. The problem was solved thanks to the income from nitrate which allowed for the payment of the municipal debts and a complete overhaul of the municipal system known as the “Comuna Autónoma”.
Keywords: Economic history, Municipal finances.
Palabras clave: Luis Emilio Recabarren, socialismo.
Within the context of Luis Emilio Recabarren's sojourn in the province of Tarapacá between 1911 and 1915, and the foundation there and then of the Partido Obrero Socialista, this article explores the origins of the close association established between the nitrate area and Chile's nascent socialism. The writings, lectures and regional press provide the media through which Tarapacá's socialists diagnosed the evils afflicting working-class lives, the instruments through which these could be overcome, and the socialist utopia toward which they wished to direct workers' actions. The article concludes by reviewing the political and ideological consolidation of northern socialism, and its projection onto other sections of Chilean territory.
Keywords: Luis Emilio Recabarren, socialism.
Palabras clave: Historia de la niñez, Minería.
This article shows the presence of child labor in Chilean mining from the time of the Conquest to the present day. It starts with a general attempt to place the role of child labor in the context of the history of childhood. It then refers to the various forms of mining exploitation, the conditions which led to the employment of children and the changes which took place over time. This is followed by a description of the reaction of the State and society by means of a regulatory framework, the public debate on the subject and its echo in the "social literature". The final chapter identifies the subjective elements which accompanied the working life of the child miners and the variables which influenced their relations with adults.
Keywords: History of childhood, Minery.
Palabras clave: Conventillo, historia del crimen.
This article reveals information from judicial sources regarding poor women in Santiago at the turn of the century. As many as a hundred cases from Santiago's criminal tribunals are analyzed in order to explore the everyday life of these outer city dwellers. The study aims to mend flaws of these women; space (physical surrounding), employment and felony. First, life in the 'conventillo' is examined through its opposing characteristics; poverty, promiscuity, precariousness as well as solidarity, affection and humanness. Then a look is cast upon poor women's employment in extenuating and badly paid work, specifically in five types of jobs, the characteristics of which are highlighted. Space and job type are brought together to shed light on what motivates felony offences.
Keywords: Conventillo, Criminal history.
Palabras clave: Arturo Alessandri Palma.
This article analyzed the social dimension of the political discourse addressed by Arturo Alessandri Palma to the nitrate workers, and the working class at large, in the period comprised between 1915 and 1932. Its purpose is to consider the contents of that dimension and their capacity to induce the popular sectors to assume an active political militancy. It evaluates the orientation of Alessandri’s "populist" practices after 1920 as a mechanism of working-class politicization, arguing that they had a basically instrumental character. In that regard, the traditional image of Alessandri as a popular "caudillo" since the 1915 congressional campaign is brought to question, emphasizing instead his interest in giving the working-class mobilization an institutional slant, in support of the conservation of public order and social peace.
Keywords: Arturo Alessandri Palma.
Palabras clave: Cuestión social, Catolicismo social.
This article reviews the writings and historiography on the so-called "social question" and the origins of social Catholicism in Chile from 1880 to 1920, and covers the revelant literature on these subjects up to 1990. The authors and their contributions are quoted and evaluated in their reseptive historical contexts which condition their historiographical perspectives. Topics which require further research are identified.
Keywords: Social question, Social Catholicism.
Palabras clave: Antropología histórica, América colonial.
Power, a vague and ambiguous concept, can be defined as a vertical practice of domination effected through different but interactive channels. This article discusses a specific field of action: "collective persuasion". Persuasive strategy is seen as a mechanism which, appealing to sensitive psychological elements, takes on a political function by helping to create a “belief” in the legitimacy of the power system, in feeding an eventual fascination for authority and, in broader terms, in providing a subjective ground to the fears, emotions and affections which uphold the acceptance of the underlying ideologies. From an “historical anthropology” perspective, and in the context of Colonial Spanish America, the public lithurgies associated with power -ceremonies, rites, celebrations, “civil” and religious festivites- are seen as one on the most elaborate fields of this persuasive strategy. This proposition is grounded on a broad theoretical discussion, on a revision of the historical literature on the subject and a case study: the celebrations for the monarchy in a peripherical province such as Chile.
Keywords: Historial anthropology, Colonial Spanish America.
Palabras clave: Vida privada, Valparaíso, élites.
This article-based on the study of contemporary wills, lawsuits, letters, newspapers and memoirs-reconstructs certain aspects of the privae life of the upper class of Valparaíso in the 19th century: their houses, their marriages, their values and ideas, and their home life and pastimes. During the period covered by this study it is possible to observe certain changes in a significant part of this group. Thus, during the last third of the century the plain hose gave way to the “mansion”: money and ostentation became increasingly important, weakening the old values of hard work, sobriety and family unity among the Valparaíso elite. Without exploring the more profound reasons for this evolution, the author suggests that this could be due to the admiration with which that sector regarded the upper class of Santiago, given that the new lifestyle adopted was practically the same as the one of the elites in the capital.
Keywords: Privae life, Valparaiso, elites.
Palabras clave: Población indígena, Partido del Maule, siglo XVI.
The article studies territorial occupation and settlernent of indigenous populations that lived in the Partido del Maule, Capitanía General de Chile, in the XVI century. Is starts with an analysis of the various types of edited and unedited sources that are available on the subject: chronicles and bureaucratic documentation, records on the encomiendas and mercedes de tierra, administrative visits and judicial procedures of diverse origins corresponding to the XVI, XVII and XVIII centuríes. We establish that the indigenous territory during the XVI century appears under a different -fragmented, non comparable- view depending on the type of document and date of production. The common denominator is a lack of interest in the territory actually inhabited or used by this population. In reviewing these fragmented views on territory, changes become apparent around 1580, linked to the process of “reducción”. Finally, these results are contrasted with the descriptions constructed during subsequent centuries concerning the first years of colonial period as well as with archacological findings.
Keywords: Indigenous population, Maule, XVI century.
FICHERO BIBLIOGRÁFICO 1997 En esta bibliografía se han reunido obras de las siguientes especies: a) estudios publicados en Chile sobre temas relacionados con las ciencias históricas; b) publicaciones hechas en el extranjero sobre temas de historia de Chile, y c) obras históricas dadas a luz por chilenos en el extranjero sobre historia de Chile, España … [+]