32

Historia (Santiago)

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Universidad Catolica

PUBLICACIÓN DEL INSTITUTO DE HISTORIA

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Bernedo Pinto, Patricio

Los industriales alemanes de Valdivia, 1850-1914

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Inmigrantes alemanes, industrialización, Valdivia.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article analyses tile role of the German immigrants in the industrial development of Valdivia between 1850 and 1914. This group managed to organise an important group of modern factories dedicated mainly to the transformation of agricultural and forestry products into manufactured or semi-manufactured goods. They were also sucessful in placing their production in the local, national and international markets, making Valdivia an important port for the export of industrial products. The establishment of the factory system in Valdivia extended the use of two of its principal characteristics: the division of labor and wage payments in cash.

Keywords: German immigrants, industrialization, Valdivia.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Devés Valdés, Eduardo

El pensamiento nacionalista en América Latina y la reivindicación de la identidad económica (1925-1945)

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Nacionalismo, Identidad cultural.

 

Abstract

close [x]

Latin American nationalist thought in the period between 1925 and the mid 1940s represents a revindication of national economic identity, just as nationalism was previously linked to the scarch for social identity and, even earlier, for a cultural identity. The author reviews the works of various writers in the majority of Latin American countries who, notwithstanding obvious differences, formed part of this movement. They include Federico Henríquez y Carvajal, Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz, José Vasconcelos, Gabriela Mistral, Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Carlos Ibarguren. J. Oliveira Vianna, Plinio Salgado, Juan Emiliano O'Leary, Antenor Orrego, Salvador Mendieta, Vicente Sáenz and Juan José Arévalo. Nationalism is studied in relation to other ideologies such as conservatism, integralism and socialism. It is also considered in its relation to historical revisionism and the subject of continental unity.

Keywords: Nationalism, Cultural identity.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Gazmuri, Cristián

La Compañía de Ferrocarril, puerto y balneario de Quintero (una empresa fracasada)

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Puerto, Quintero.

 

Abstract

close [x]

In 1872 a rich chilean business man tried to built, in the natural harbour of Quintero, near Santiago, a modern seaport with better facilities than those of Valparaíso. He died before achieving his goal, but his son and daughter in law continued with the task and actually built the port and a railroad, as well as a summer resort in the 1920's. But the company had many problems, mainly financial ones. After some years of efforts to save the enterprise it finally went to bankruptey, and the owners were ruined. It’s a history o ilusions, will, bad luck, fight agaist bureaucracy and opposite interests, inapropiate management and final disaster.

Keywords: Harbour, Quintero.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Lacoste, Pablo

Las propuestas de integración económica sudamericana: de Diego Portales a Alfredo Palacios (1830-1939)

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Integración económica, Diego Portales, Juan Bautista Alberdi.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article analyses various proposals for the economic integration of South America presented both in Chile and Argentina between 1830 and 1930. Their authors here studied include Diego Portales, Juan Bautista Alberdi, Alejandro Bunge, Santiago Marín Vicuña and Alfredo Palacios.

Keywords: Economic integration, Diego Portales, Juan Bautista Alberdi.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Lorenzo Schiaffino, Santiago

El corregidor chileno en el siglo XVIII

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Corregidor, Siglo XVIII.

 

Abstract

close [x]

The “Corregidor” in 18th-century Chile did not receive a salary, a state of affairs which required him to engage in economic activities in order to live. The result was that many of these judges engaged in trade, with an advantage over other merchants and in detriment of the execution of justice.

Keywords: Corregidor, 18th-century.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Millar Carvacho, René

El gobierno de los jesuitas en la provincia peruana 1630-1650

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Provincia jesuita de Perú.

 

Abstract

close [x]

Based mainly with the correspondence between the General of the Order and the provincial heads, this article studies the administration of the Jesuit Province of Perú between 1630 and 1650. It shows that, in practice, the government of the province was exercised directly by the General, as was, in fact prescribed in the constitutions of the constitutions of the order. Centralization was such that no matter of any importance was decided without consulting Rome. The General intervened in the nomination of the superiors, in the granting of degrees to members of the order, in the management of the schools and houses, in the granting of permissions to publish and other affairs. But he also decided on other very trivial matters, and did so knowing that in could lead to situations which could affect the discipline or the prestige of the order. The letter from the General also show that the Jesuit province of Perú was beset y numerous problems, the most important of which refer to economic and disciplinary questions.

Keywords: Jesuit Province of Perú.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Muñoz Delaunoy, Ignacio

Solicitación in loco confessionis: un estudio de caso (1650-1666)

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Historia antropológica, Inquisición.

 

Abstract

close [x]

The seat of the Inquisition from Lima concentrated its professional efforts in the social control of the “old Christians”, rather than in the persecution of real heretics. With the exception of restricted periods, the institution devoted most of its time in following trials against bigamous, witches or blasphemous. There where, however, kinds of “old christians” who suffered in a very severe way by the pressure to reform their conduct. Undoubtedly the religious were their favourite targets. The article studies the process followed against the Peruvian jesuit Rafael Venegas, for solicitation, perpetrated in Santiago of Chile in the middle of the XVII century. It tries to explain why the sacrament of penitence became a means to an undure erotism and what where the conditions that made the Church start seeing the incontinence of its members as punishable offense. The article, based on the rich information given in legal source, pretend to shows an internal vision of the way in which the trials of this kind were conducted, pointing out its judiciary dimension as well as the anthropological ones.

Keywords: anthropological history, Inquisition .

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Nazer Ahumada, Ricardo

Las finanzas municipales chilenas:1833-1887

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Historia económica, Finanzas municipales, Comuna Autónoma.

 

Abstract

close [x]

Chilean municipalities during the 19th century were completely dependent on the government and constantly short of funds. The Constitution of 1833 contemplated municipalities which embraced large territories and various urban centers. The capital of the Department was the seat of the municipality which was under the authority of the local governor. In these conditions, municipal finances were dependent on decisions taken in Santiago. Originally the municipalities relied on the colonial system of revenues to which were added a series of local taxes on commerce, street lighting and urban transport, with poor results. In the middle of the century, the central government provided a new financial structure based on local imposts, state subsidies and the possibility of borrowing for public works. Although municipal finances improved, sustained borrowing, especially in the large cities, led to a crisis towards 1880, when some municipalities were assigning up to 50 per cent of their income to service debts. The problem was solved thanks to the income from nitrate which allowed for the payment of the municipal debts and a complete overhaul of the municipal system known as the “Comuna Autónoma”.

Keywords: Economic history, Municipal finances.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Pinto Vallejos, Julio

Socialismo y salitre: Recabarren, Tarapacá y la formación del Partido Obrero Socialista

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Luis Emilio Recabarren, socialismo.

 

Abstract

close [x]

Within the context of Luis Emilio Recabarren's sojourn in the province of Tarapacá between 1911 and 1915, and the foundation there and then of the Partido Obrero Socialista, this article explores the origins of the close association established between the nitrate area and Chile's nascent socialism. The writings, lectures and regional press provide the media through which Tarapacá's socialists diagnosed the evils afflicting working-class lives, the instruments through which these could be overcome, and the socialist utopia toward which they wished to direct workers' actions. The article concludes by reviewing the political and ideological consolidation of northern socialism, and its projection onto other sections of Chilean territory.

Keywords: Luis Emilio Recabarren, socialism.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Rojas Flores, Jorge

Trabajo infantil en la minería: apuntes históricos

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Historia de la niñez, Minería.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article shows the presence of child labor in Chilean mining from the time of the Conquest to the present day. It starts with a general attempt to place the role of child labor in the context of the history of childhood. It then refers to the various forms of mining exploitation, the conditions which led to the employment of children and the changes which took place over time. This is followed by a description of the reaction of the State and society by means of a regulatory framework, the public debate on the subject and its echo in the "social literature". The final chapter identifies the subjective elements which accompanied the working life of the child miners and the variables which influenced their relations with adults.

Keywords: History of childhood, Minery.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Urriola Pérez, Ivonne

Espacio, oficio y delitos femeninos: el sector popular de Santiago. 1900-1925

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Conventillo, historia del crimen.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article reveals information from judicial sources regarding poor women in Santiago at the turn of the century. As many as a hundred cases from Santiago's criminal tribunals are analyzed in order to explore the everyday life of these outer city dwellers. The study aims to mend flaws of these women; space (physical surrounding), employment and felony. First, life in the 'conventillo' is examined through its opposing characteristics; poverty, promiscuity, precariousness as well as solidarity, affection and humanness. Then a look is cast upon poor women's employment in extenuating and badly paid work, specifically in five types of jobs, the characteristics of which are highlighted. Space and job type are brought together to shed light on what motivates felony offences.

Keywords: Conventillo, Criminal history.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Valdivia Ortiz de Zárate, Verónica

Yo, el León de Tarapacá. Arturo Alessandri Palma, 1915-1932

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Arturo Alessandri Palma.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article analyzed the social dimension of the political discourse addressed by Arturo Alessandri Palma to the nitrate workers, and the working class at large, in the period comprised between 1915 and 1932. Its purpose is to consider the contents of that dimension and their capacity to induce the popular sectors to assume an active political militancy. It evaluates the orientation of Alessandri’s "populist" practices after 1920 as a mechanism of working-class politicization, arguing that they had a basically instrumental character. In that regard, the traditional image of Alessandri as a popular "caudillo" since the 1915 congressional campaign is brought to question, emphasizing instead his interest in giving the working-class mobilization an institutional slant, in support of the conservation of public order and social peace.

Keywords: Arturo Alessandri Palma.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Valdivieso Fernández, Patricio

“Cuestión social” y doctrina social de la Iglesia en Chile (1880-1920): ensayo histórico sobre el estado investigación

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Cuestión social, Catolicismo social.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article reviews the writings and historiography on the so-called "social question" and the origins of social Catholicism in Chile from 1880 to 1920, and covers the revelant literature on these subjects up to 1990. The authors and their contributions are quoted and evaluated in their reseptive historical contexts which condition their historiographical perspectives. Topics which require further research are identified.

Keywords: Social question, Social Catholicism.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime

De las liturgias del poder al poder de las liturgias: para una antropología política de Chile Colonial

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Antropología histórica, América colonial.

 

Abstract

close [x]

Power, a vague and ambiguous concept, can be defined as a vertical practice of domination effected through different but interactive channels. This article discusses a specific field of action: "collective persuasion". Persuasive strategy is seen as a mechanism which, appealing to sensitive psychological elements, takes on a political function by helping to create a “belief” in the legitimacy of the power system, in feeding an eventual fascination for authority and, in broader terms, in providing a subjective ground to the fears, emotions and affections which uphold the acceptance of the underlying ideologies. From an “historical anthropology” perspective, and in the context of Colonial Spanish America, the public lithurgies associated with power -ceremonies, rites, celebrations, “civil” and religious festivites- are seen as one on the most elaborate fields of this persuasive strategy. This proposition is grounded on a broad theoretical discussion, on a revision of the historical literature on the subject and a case study: the celebrations for the monarchy in a peripherical province such as Chile.

Keywords: Historial anthropology, Colonial Spanish America.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Vargas Cariola, Juan Eduardo

Aspectos de la vida privada de la clase alta de Valparaíso: la casa, la familia y el hogar entre 1830 y 1880

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Vida privada, Valparaíso, élites.

 

Abstract

close [x]

This article-based on the study of contemporary wills, lawsuits, letters, newspapers and memoirs-reconstructs certain aspects of the privae life of the upper class of Valparaíso in the 19th century: their houses, their marriages, their values and ideas, and their home life and pastimes. During the period covered by this study it is possible to observe certain changes in a significant part of this group. Thus, during the last third of the century the plain hose gave way to the “mansion”: money and ostentation became increasingly important, weakening the old values of hard work, sobriety and family unity among the Valparaíso elite. Without exploring the more profound reasons for this evolution, the author suggests that this could be due to the admiration with which that sector regarded the upper class of Santiago, given that the new lifestyle adopted was practically the same as the one of the elites in the capital.

Keywords: Privae life, Valparaiso, elites.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Vega Palma, Alejandra

Asentamiento y territorialidad indígena en el partido del Maule en el siglo XVI

Ver la versión completa | Mostrar: | Abstract

Resumen

cerrar [x]

Palabras clave: Población indígena, Partido del Maule, siglo XVI.

 

Abstract

close [x]

The article studies territorial occupation and settlernent of indigenous populations that lived in the Partido del Maule, Capitanía General de Chile, in the XVI century. Is starts with an analysis of the various types of edited and unedited sources that are available on the subject: chronicles and bureaucratic documentation, records on the encomiendas and mercedes de tierra, administrative visits and judicial procedures of diverse origins corresponding to the XVI, XVII and XVIII centuríes. We establish that the indigenous territory during the XVI century appears under a different -fragmented, non comparable- view depending on the type of document and date of production. The common denominator is a lack of interest in the territory actually inhabited or used by this population. In reviewing these fragmented views on territory, changes become apparent around 1580, linked to the process of “reducción”. Finally, these results are contrasted with the descriptions constructed during subsequent centuries concerning the first years of colonial period as well as with archacological findings.

Keywords: Indigenous population, Maule, XVI century.

 
Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Julio Pinto Vallejos: Trabajos y rebeldías en la Pampa salitrera

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

José Antonio Viera-Gallo: 11 de septiembre, testimonio, recuerdos y una reflexión actual

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Gazmuri, Cristián

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Elisabeth Subercaseaux: Gabriel Valdés, señales de historia

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Gazmuri, Cristián

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Ana María Contador: Los Pincheira. Un caso de bandidaje social. Chile. 1817-1832

Ver reseña Reseñado por: León León, Marco Antonio

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, Oscar Muñoz y J.G. Palma: Las economías latinoamericanas, 1950-1990

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Valdivieso Fernández, Patricio

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

John Mayo y Simón Collier: Mining in Chile’s Norte Chico. Journal of Charles Lambert. 1825-1830

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Couyoumdjian, Juan Ricardo

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Gonzalo Rojas Sánchez: Chile escoge la libertad. La Presidencia de Augusto Pinochet Ugarte

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Fermandois, Joaquín

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Isabel Cruz de Amenábar: El traje. Transformaciones de una segunda piel

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Silva Vargas, Fernando

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Nicolás Cruz: Vivir lo que tiene más vida, conversaciones con Ricardo Krebs

Ver reseña Reseñado por: San Francisco, Alejandro

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Julio Retamal F.: El Renacimiento. Una invención historiográfica

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Cruz B., Nicolás

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

Lutgardo García Fuentes: Los peruleros y el comercio de Sevilla con las Indias, 1580-1630

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Muñoz Delaunoy, Ignacio

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº32, Santiago 1999

René Millar: Inquisición y sociedad en el virreinato peruano

Ver reseña Reseñado por: González Echeñique, Javier

Fichero bibliográfico 1997

FICHERO BIBLIOGRÁFICO 1997 En esta bibliografía se han reunido obras de las siguientes especies: a) estudios publicados en Chile sobre temas relacionados con las ciencias históricas; b) publicaciones hechas en el extranjero sobre temas de historia de Chile, y c) obras históricas dadas a luz por chilenos en el extranjero sobre historia de Chile, España … [+]