35

Historia (Santiago)

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Universidad Catolica

PUBLICACIÓN DEL INSTITUTO DE HISTORIA

versión on-line ISSN 0717-7194

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Bernedo Pinto, Patricio & Arriagada, Eduardo

Los inicios de El Mercurio de Santiago en el epistolario de Agustín Edwards Mac Clure (1899-1905)

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Press historians have periodically regarded the foundation of "El Mercurio" newspaper in Santiago in 1900 as the turning point at which the modernization of the Chilean press began. However, the better part of their publications analysis has omitted a key factor: To show that this newspapers entrepreneurial and journalistic proposal faced in its early stages many hardships and ups-and-downs. The beginnings of this newspaper were a story in themselves. With that hypothesis en mind and based on the newspaper founders letter exchange, this investigation seeks to demonstrate that "El Mercurio" took more than three years to become the newspaper that has been hailed by press historians.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Couyoumdjian, Juan Ricardo & Muñoz, María Angélica

Chilenos en Europa durante la Primera Guerra Mundial: 1914-1918

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As a result of the outbreak of the First World War in Europe many Chileans stranded in Europe requested help from the diplomatic and consular representatives. The records of the Legation in London under Agustín Edwards, show the various forms of assistance provided, whilst the list of beneficiaries, admittedly a sample of the Chilean in Europe, show that travel was not restricted to the upper classes. This article also studies the situation of a number of Chileans directly involved in the war, who were assisted by the Chilean Legation in Great Britain.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Grez Toso, Sergio

¿Autonomía o escudo protector? El movimiento obrero y popular y los mecanismos de conciliación y arbitraje (Chile: 1900-1924)

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This study explores the attitudes and positions assumed by the Chilean working classes during the first quarter of the 20th century with regard to the mechanisms of conciliation and arbitration that grew initially in a partly or completely spontaneous manner and then ever-increasingly encouraged by State authorities. The main focus of this article is the labour movement, but the viewpoints of both the State and employers are also analysed. After thorough examination of numerous social conflicts in which these mechanisms were implemented or where an attempt was made to put them into effect, the present work concludes that when the new legislation for labour relations appeared in the mid-1920s, it was favourably received, the fruit of long years of speeches and "field trials". Although the labour relation laws implemented in 1924 were the political elites answer to their need for order and social control, they also reflected the aspirations of vast sectors of the labouring classes -most probably the majority- who saw the action of the public authorities as a protection against employers abuse. However, obtaining the adherence of the working classes to the mediation policies of the State was not an easy task and was only possible after a long and contradictory debate within the popular and labour movement. This article attempts to reconstruct this process.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Huneeus Madge, Carlos & Lanas, María Paz

Ciencia política e historia. Eduardo Cruz-Coke y el Estado de Bienestar en Chile: 1937-1938

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This article analyse the policies pursued by the Health Minister Dr. Eduardo Cruz-Coke (1937-1938), a remarkable professor of Biochemistry at the University of Chile who contributed to train a significant number of Chilean medical scientists. His health program was based upon a scientific approach to tackle the main health challenges, particularly problems, and general, maternal and infant mortality. He set up a National Food Council that defined innovative policies to improve the alimentary weakness, particularly among the popular sectors, and organized Preventive Medicine Services to diminish labour sickness. The measures had a positive impac in Public Health indexes and were followed by its successors. His successful performance made him a political figure in the Conservative Party. He was elected Senator in 1941, was reelected in 1949, and run as presidential candidate in 1946.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Klein, Marcus

The making of an unlikely chilean fascist: reflections on the intellectual development and political work of Carlos Keller Rueff

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This article deals with the intellectual evolution and political activities of Carlos Keller Rueff between the early 1920s and the late 1930s. It discusses his development from a German nationalist to a Chilean fascist during the course of this eventful period. In the 1920s Keller, who started his career in the Deutsch-Chilenischer Bund, the umbrella organisation of the German-Chilean community, expressed German National positions. Only at the end of the decade he began to distance himself from his narrow, sectarian German sub-culture and took a broader, national view, a development that coincided with his move from Concepción to Santiago and the failure of his plan to revive the immigration of Germans to Chile. With the book La eterna crisis chilena, published in 1931, he finally emerged as a Chilean nationalist and gained the reputation of an intellectual. One year later, in April 1932, he was, together with Jorge González von Marées, one of the founding members of the Chilean Movimiento Nacional Socialista (MNS). Keller became the movements ideologue and its second most prominent leader. This career abruptly ended with the failed nacista coup of 5 September 1938 and the subsequent transformation of the MNS into the Vanguardia Popular Socialista

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Lacoste, Pablo

La guerra de los mapas entre Argentina y Chile: una mirada desde Chile

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Through schools, newspapers, and military quarters from Argentina and Chile, it is taught that the neighbor country is always the expansionist and lands robber one. To argentinians, all lands to the south of the Bío-Bío belonged to Río de la Platas Viceroyalty, and therefore, they should be now argentinian; to chileans, the Patagonia/would have been owned by Chile until the 1881s Treaty, which Chile/would have signed under pressure, since the Pacific War was taking place at that moment. This article shows that both positions are untrue, since some documents, antecedents and royal dispositions havent been taken into consideration by these two countries; antecedents showing new information which supports the opponent positions. Serious mistakes are described and explained through new documentary evidence, mistakes which are already standardized in both, argentinians and chileans historiography.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

León, Leonardo

Reclutas forzados y desertores de la patria: el bajo pueblo chileno en la Guerra de la Independencia, 1810-1814

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This article presents a detailed account of the conflictive relationship that evolved between the chilean lower classes and the elite during the first phase of the war of Independence (1810-1814). Based upon a wide range of documents, the author demonstrates that the deep schims which divided the social body during the nineteenth century had its roots in tho se early days of the Republic. It focuses its atention on the military aspects, examining both the forced recruitmen of peasants and inquilinos from the haciendas and its subsequent dessertion from the warring armies. Neither patriots nor monarchists, the lower classes showed their determination to remain outside the civil war. Thus, they became an imp ortant third party in the eonflict, under the guise of montoneros and bandits, that continued fighting against the national authorities well after the Independence wars had ended.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Martinic Beros, Mateo

La participación de capitales británicos en el desarrollo económico del territorio de Magallanes (1880-1920).

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British capital in the territory of Magallanes in the years between 1880 and 1920 was concentrated mainly in sheepfarming. British companies and individuals represented over 70 per cent of the total landholdings dedicated to this activity, as shown in the statistics here provided. Britons were also pioneers in the building of freezing plants for mutton carcasses for export. In contrast, british investments in commerce and other industries were of minor importance with the exception of the Magallanes Telephone Company

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Tagle Domínguez, Matías

Gabriela Mistral y Pedro Aguirre Cerda a través de su correspondencia privada (1919-1941)

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Gabriela Mistral and Pedro Aguirre Cerda made acquaintance of themselves in 1916. Since then, they maintained correspondence until 1941. The paper is based on a set of twenty-seven letters written by Gabriela Mistral to Pedro Aguirre Cerda from different places of the world, published in Mapocho journal in 1977. It also includes the Epistolario de Gabriela Mistral issued in the Epistolario de Pedro Aguirre Cerda (1938-1941) published by the Centro de Estudios Barros Arana. Finally, it incorporates a letter by Juana Aguirre de Aguirre to Mistral, dated in 1942. This is completed by different references that both of them made in their letters to other people. The paper reviews four aspects of the relation between Gabriela Mistral and Pedro Aguirre Cerda. The first topic is in regard to the poetess daily life aspects. A second question its related with Gabriela Mistrals professional matters, specially the ones connected with her labor as an educator, as an international government employee and as a publicist of our country in other places of the world. The third issue is related to the poetesss opinions concerning issues about Chilean politics. Finally, the fourth topic is in relation with subjects concerning Mistrals private life and personal opinions.

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Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

WALTER HANISCH, S.J., HISTORIADOR

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Historia, Revista

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

BIBLIOGRAFÍA DE WALTER HANISCH, S.J.

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Couyoumdjian, Juan Ricardo

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Iván Jaksic: Andrés Bello, la pasión por el orden

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Gazmuri, Cristián

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Mateo Martinic. Menéndez y Braun. Prohombres patagónicos.

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Couyoumdjian, Juan Ricardo

Edicion: HISTORIA Nº35, Santiago 2002

Alejandro San Francisco R.: Pablo Neruda 1971-2001. A treinta años del Premio Nobel.

Ver reseña Reseñado por: Cruz B., Nicolás

Fichero Bibliográfico 2000

FICHERO BIBLIOGRÁFICO 20001 En esta bibliografía se han reunido obras de las siguientes especies: a) estudios publicados en Chile sobre temas relacionados con las ciencias históricas; b) publicaciones hechas en el extranjero sobre temas de historia de Chile, y c) obras históricas dadas a luz por chilenos en el extranjero sobre historia de Chile, España … [+]

Fichero Bibliográfico 2000

FICHERO BIBLIOGRÁFICO 2000 En esta bibliografía se han reunido obras de las siguientes especies: a) estudios publicados en Chile sobre temas relacionados con las ciencias históricas; b) publicaciones hechas en el extranjero sobre temas de historia de Chile, y c) obras históricas dadas a luz por chilenos en el extranjero sobre historia de Chile, España … [+]